Synthetic solutions of flutamide were subject to degradation using three advanced oxidation systems, namely UV/TiO2, UV/H2O2 and UV/H2O2/TiO2. Optimum conditions and degradation kinetics has been established for all three systems. The experimental results showed that all three systems can be successfully used for flutamide degradation with efficiencies higher than 99% and that advanced oxidation processes are showing good potential for degradation of organic pollutants that cannot be suitable removed/degraded using conventional wastewater treatment processes
Liquid phase chromatographic methods applied to determine emerging contaminants in environmental samples
Authors: VASILE-ION IANCU, JANA PETRE, TOMA GALAON, GABRIEL-VALENTIN SERBAN, MARCELA NICULESCU, FLORENTINA LAURA CHIRIAC, ROXANA ELENA SCUTARIU, STEFANIA GHEORGHE, GABRIEL-LUCIAN RADU
Emerging contaminants are a heterogeneous group of chemicals that includes daily personal care products and pharmaceuticals (PPCPs), flame retardants, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and nanoparticles (NPs) present in environment which are unregulated. In this review are presented the methods of analysis conducted by INCD-ECOIND regarding some classes of emerging contaminants (neonicotinoids compounds, beta-blockers) that are not mentioned in the legislation, in different types of environmental samples (influent and effluent). The paper presents the selective solid phase extraction (SPE) methods for isolating the compounds of interest from aqueous matrices and the main operating parameters of the separation process. Then, the compounds were subjected to liquid phase chromatographic separation with mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-MS/MS). Thus, the main instrumental operating parameters used for the analytical determination of the emerging contaminants studied are presented. Finally, the methods were applied in the determination of compounds from different categories of water, carrying out studies on the efficiency of elimination of compounds in several municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).
Matrix-type certified reference materials for quality control of metal determination from solid environmental and vegetation samples
In the context of monitoring environmental factors, metals are one of the major analytical components. Applying appropriate determination methods and obtaining accurate results is a requirement imposed on environmental laboratories that perform quality control of water, soil, waste or vegetation. This study presents some examples of certified reference materials for quality control of the results of toxic metal determination from solid environmental and vegetation samples. The analyzed and verified metals were As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The pre-treatment of the samples, the determination methods of metals and the obtained results are also presented. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-EOS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques are suitable for low metal concentrations, while ICP-EOS and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) methods can be used at high concentrations.
Microbiological efficiency tests of the cosmetic tools disinfection procedures
Authors: MONICA ALEXANDRA VAIDEANU, ALINA BANCIU, DRAGOS RADULESCU, DANIELA IONICA, MIHAI NITA-LAZAR
In the last decade, the cosmetic industry has experienced a massive development, but there have also been issues related to their influence on the health of the population. The application methods of the cosmetic products could trigger the appearance of the skin infectious, which raise the need for efficient disinfection processes of the cosmetic products. At the present, the economic operators in the field of cosmetics are guided by medical regulations, but, unfortunately there are not standardized procedure for the application and control of disinfection.
The aim of this study was to determine an efficient procedure of disinfection for instruments used in the application of cosmetics such as the beauty blender. There were performed two different disinfection procedures, a chemical disinfection using 70% ethanol and a physical disinfection with UV radiation. The influence of foundation on disinfection procedures was also tested. A standardized S. aureus and a S. haemolyticus bacterium from a human abscess were tested and an antibiotic resistance pattern was also analysed.
The disinfection efficiency tests showed that the ethanol solution was effective after 5 minutes, decreasing the S. haemolyticus bacterial density by 50% in the absence of foundation. In the presence of the foundation, this process was no longer efficient, foundation having a possible protection and nutritional role for bacteria. The radiation with UV at 265 nm showed a complete eradication of both bacterial strains after 1 minute, regardless of foundation presence or not.
The antibiotic susceptibility tested showed that both strains had the natural penicillin resistance.
Advanced Removal of Trichloroethylene from Water by Sonolysis, Biocatalytic Oxidation and Ultrafiltration
Authors: MIHAI STEFANESCU, IONUT CRISTEA, GHEORGHE BATRINESCU
Trichloroethylene (TCE) causes important pollution problems of soil and groundwater in other countries even in this day when its direct application is less than the last century.
This paper emphasized a modern treatment flow for trichloroethylene advanced removal from water based on four phases: sonolysis - biocatalytical oxidation - sonolysis - ultrafiltration. Following this scheme, it is possible to obtain residual TCE content in the effluent approx. 0.01 mg/l, from initial content of 0.5 mg TCE/L. Ultrasonic energy (50-200 kJ) biocatalyst dose (laccase), biocatalytic oxidation time and ultrafiltration separation capacity are the main operating parameters which control the TCE removal efficiency (max. 87%).
Implementing an Innovation Management System at National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology - ECOIND
The paper presents the activities performed for the implementation of the innovation management system integrated into the existent quality, environmental, and occupational health and safety management system of the institute. The basic terms used in the project are defined and the international and Romanian standards are explained.
The results obtained consist in identifying, introducing and describing the processes related to innovation and establishing the interaction of these processes with the other processes of the management system, establishing the policy and objectives related to innovation, reviewing the system procedures and the quality, environmental and occupational health, and safety management manual to include the innovation processes and elaborating the occupational procedures in order to keep these processes under control. The paper shows the main benefits of the innovation management system and the impact of this system for INCD ECOIND in several aspects: technical, technological, economic, social, and environmental.
Evaluating the ecotoxicity of different pharmaceuticals using Aliivibrio fischeri bioassays
Authors: LUCIAN IONESCU, STEFANIA GHEORGHE, DANIEL MITRU, CATALINA STOICA, ALINA ROXANA BANCIU, MADALINA MIHALACHE, MIHAI NITA-LAZAR
An endless list of companies have produced a large amount of parmaceutical compounds in a year-on-year growth trend. Due to the excessive consumption of these substances and the inappropriate disposal, the environment was contaminated, especially aquatic ecosystems, with quantities of pharmaceuticals (PHACs) so that they have affected the living organisms, leading to decreased biodiversity and ecological degradation.
Many studies on PHACs environmental presence and toxic effects were performed, but unfortunately, no limit was establish for discharging into environment, especially into the aquatic systems. The aim of this study was to use the bioluminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria as an indicator of toxical effect of different PHACs in simulated marine medium. The Microtox® bioassay is based on the PHACs inhibitory effect on the metabolism of bacteria which induced changes in their bacterial bioluminescence.
The test organisms were exposed to analgesics and anti-inflammatories such as Diclofenac, Ketoprofen, Naproxen and Ibuprofen. The results showed that based on EC50 values, Naproxen had a very low toxicity but Diclofenac, Ketoprofen and Ibuprofen had a harmful effect on the aquatic organisms.
Waste management and their environmental impact: Challenges and opportunities at national level
Authors: LIDIA KIM, GEORGETA MADALINA ARAMA, GHEORGHE BATRINESCU, MIHAI BRATU, AGNES SERBANESCU, CAROL BLAZIU LEHR
Both nationally and globally, waste generation increases with increasing product consumption. Thus, addressing the issue of waste is an ongoing challenge for researchers around the world. This challenge derives from the fact that in many European countries, including Romania, the amount of waste generated is very high compared to current technologies for treatment, recycle or recovery. Therefore, the most convenient management methods remain storage and incineration. These methods generate significant amounts of hazardous pollutants with a significant impact on the environment and human health. The paper presents a series of results related to waste management obtained within National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology – ECOIND Bucharest in the last 10 years. The paper is focused on four topics: analytical detection and monitoring pollutants from waste; environmental impact and risk assessments; waste classification and management; waste treatment and recovery technologies. The results obtained within these topics refers to optimal methods for detection and characterization of complex waste matrices, methods for assessing the impact on the environment generated by non-compliant landfills and risk prediction and reliable solutions and technologies for waste treatment and recovery. The topics approached represent a challenge for starting the implementation of circular economy concept promoted by EU and adopted by countries and governments all over the world.
Adequate pollution management - a must for implementation of ‘One Health’ concept
Authors: GEORGETA MADALINA ARAMA, LIDIA KIM, MIHAI NITA-LAZAR, LUOANA FLORENTINA PASCU, CAROL BLAZIU LEHR
The paper focused on the possible links among pollution, pollution management efficiency including waste management and the propensity of a variety of emerging diseases in our society by answering the question: “How pollution can affect human health?” Environmental pollution is a reality and our planet ecosystem possibilities to face the challenges due to the constant exceeding its resilience are becoming smaller and smaller. The evolution of the climate change indicators like global temperature, global CO2 emissions, oceans acidification and species extinction point out that in a not very long period of time, the planet will not be able to sustain any more the present society’s life style set by the current economic development. Therefore, many warning signals have been issued to change the present behavior in order to reduce significant damages done to the environment and on human health with serious implications on the dysregulation of our immunity and the onset of a plethora of diseases. In this respect, the present paper reviewed relevant aspects linked to the environmental pollution issues that become part of scientific and public debates presented in specialty literature in recent years emphasizing why the implementation of “One Health” concept is necessary.
The transition of the food safety management system to the requirements of the new 2019 edition of the EN ISO 22000 standard
The paper presents the activities and results obtained to make the transition of the food safety management system to the requirements of SR EN ISO 22000 revised in 2019. It presents the importance of food safety for human health and HACCP principles and method of food safety. The novelties brought by the revision of the reference standard are shown and the activities necessary for their inclusion in the food safety management system are made explicit. The obtained results consist in ensuring the management of risks and opportunities associated with the context and objectives of the organization, establishing prerequisite programs to ensure the conditions and activities for maintaining food safety, establishing the hazard control plan that includes the necessary control measures, procedures for monitoring the limits imposed on technological parameters and the persons responsible for eliminating or reducing to an acceptable level the significant hazards for food safety as well as in reviewing the documentation of the management system.